UPAYA PENCEGAHAN DAN PENANGGULANGAN BATITA STUNTING: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Yuniar Rosmalina, Erna Luciasari, Aditianti Aditianti, Fitrah Ernawati

Abstract


Stunting in children less than three years is manifestation of chronic nutrient deficiency during pre and postnatal period. The objective of this syatematic review is to find and to determine the effects of nutrients intervention on the linier growth of children under 3 years. In this systematic review, Medline, Pubmed, Google Search or bibliography were searched for RCTs and have full text included in this analysis. The 16 articles were meet criteria for further analysis. Out of 16 articles 2 were intervented single nutrient, 6 articles using 2-3 nutrients, 5 article using multi-micronutrients, 3 articles with nutrient and carbohydrate food source. Out of 8 articles which using single nutrient (Vitamin A, Zinc or DHA) and combination single nutrient showed 3 articles have significant effect on linier growth of the children. The supplementation of multri-micronutrient 2 articles showed positive influence to linier growth. There was no significant effect of the intervention using nutrients combined with carbohydrate food source (solid food, porridge, maize) after 6 months. The conclusion was the intervention regarding combating stunting of children less than 3 years were available, whether single nutrient or multi-macronutrients. Though no conclusive to prevent stunting children.


ABSTRAK

 

Stunting pada balita merupakan manifestasi dari kekurangan zat gizi kronis, baik saat pre- maupun post-natal. Review bertujuan mendapatkan cara pencegahan terjadinya stunting pada anak di bawah tiga tahun (batita) dan memperoleh data efikasi makro atau zat gizi mikro untuk mencegah terjadinya stunting pada bayi dan anak batita. Artikel dikumpulkan dengan melakukan penelusuran secara komputer melalui MEDLINE, PUBMED, Google Search atau bibliografi dari artikel yang ditelusur. Hanya artikel dengan desain Randomized Control Trial (RCT) dan yang mempunyai teks penuh (full text) yang akan dimasukkan dalam review ini. Diperoleh 16 artikel dengan subjek bayi atau anak batita untuk diikutkan dalam analisis ini. Dari 16 artikel yang telah diekstraksi, ada 6 artikel dengan jenis intervensi kombinasi zat gizi (2-3 zat gizi), 5 artikel jenis intervensi multi-zat-gizi-mikro, 3 artikel intervensi dengan kombinasi zat gizi dan makanan serta 2 artikel intervensi dengan zat gizi tunggal. Hasil telaah terhadap 8 artikel intervensi menggunakan zat gizi tunggal (Vitamin A, Fe, Zn atau DHA) dan kombinasi zat gizi menunjukkan hasil yang berbeda, terdapat 3 artikel yang menunjukkan pemberian zat gizi tunggal memberikan peningkatan panjang badan yang signifikan. Pada pemberian multi-zat-gizi-mikro, terdapat 2 artikel yang memperlihatkan hasil positif terhadap perubahan panjang badan. Penambahan makanan sumber karbohidrat pada makanan padat, bubur nasi, maize kombinasi dengan pemberian ASI atau mineral seng atau multivitamin ternyata tidak mempunyai pengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan linier pada bayi setelah 6 bulan intervensi. Disimpulkan bahwa intervensi pada bayi untuk penanggulangan masalah stunting dengan memberikan zat gizi tunggal, kombinasi 2-3 zat gizi (multi-zat-gizi-mikro) telah banyak dilakukan dan dampaknya tidak konklusif bisa mencegah anak batita menjadi stunting.

Kata kunci: intervensi, stunting, anak di bawah 3 tahun (batita), systematic review

Keywords


intervention, stunting, children under 3 years, systematic review

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