PENGARUH KOMPOSISI DIET DAN SENAM AEROBIK TERHADAP PENURUNAN BERAT BADAN

Ni Made Dewantari, I Wayan Ambartana

Abstract


Kemajuan teknologi dan sosial ekonomi pada kelompok masyarakat menyebabkan terjadinya perubahan gaya hidup yaitu perubahan pola diet yang cenderung komposisinya rendah serat, tinggi lemak dan berkurangnya aktivitas fisik. Kondisi tersebut berkontribusi pada meningkatnya prevalensi kegemukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh komposisi diet dan senam aerobik terhadap penurunan berat badan. Jenis penelitian eksperimental dengan rancanganrandomized pre test-post test control group design. Sampel adalah wanita dewasa di Kota Denpasar, sebanyak 33 orang, umur 30-50 tahun, IMT 25-30  kg/m2. Kelompok 1 menerapkan diet rendah lemak; kelompok 2 diet rendah karbohidrat; kelompok 3 sebagai kontrol. Sebelum dan sesudah intervensi dilakukan pengukuran berat badan. Perubahan berat badan sebelum dan setelah intervensi dianalisis dengan uji paired t-test. Perbedaan rerata penurunan berat badan ketiga kelompok dianalisis dengan uji One Way Anova. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan intervensi diet rendah lemak dan diet rendah karbohidrat dapat menurunkan berat badan secara bermakna (p=0,000). Rerata penurunan berat badan pada diet rendah lemak 3,61 kg dan diet rendah karbohidrat 3,42 kg. Penurunan berat badan pada diet rendah lemak dan diet rendah karbohidrat tidak berbeda bermakna (p=0,547). Penurunan berat badan dapat dilakukan dengan menerapkan diet energi rendah dengan komposisi rendah lemak atau rendah karbohidrat disertai senam aerobik.

ABSTRACT

The Effect of Diet Composition and Aerobic Exercise on Weight LossAdvances in technology and social economy at particular groups of people, especially in urban communities leads to changes in lifestyle eq. changes in diet that tends composition low in fiber, high in fat and lack physical activity. These conditions contribute to the increasing prevalence of obesity. The research objective was to determine the effect of dietary composition and aerobics to weight decrease. This research is a experimental design with randomized pretest-posttest control group design. Samples are adult women in Denpasar City, as many as 33 people, aged 30-50 years, BMI 25-30 kg/m2. Group 1 apply a low-fat diet; group 2 low-carb diet; group 3 controls. Before and after the intervention measurement of body weight. Changes in body weight before and after the intervention analyzed by paired t-test. The mean differences in weight loss of the three groups were analyzed with One Way Anova. The results showed low-fat diet and low-carbohydrate diets can lose weight is significantly (p=0.000). Mean weight loss on a low-fat diet 3.61 kg and 3.42 kg of low-carbohydrate diets. Weight loss in low-fat diets and low-carbohydrate diets did not differ significantly (p=0.547). Weight loss can be done by applying a low energy diet with low-fat or low-carbohydrate composition with aerobic exercise. 

Keywords: low-carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, aerobic exercise, weight


 



Keywords


diet rendah karbohidrat, diet rendah lemak, senam aerobik, berat badan

References


Departemen Kesehatan RI. Riset Kesehatan Dasar Riskesdas. Jakarta: Depkes RI; 2013.

Dinata M. Padat Berisi dengan Aerobik. Jakarta: Cerdas Jaya; 2004.

Almatsir S. Penuntun Diet Edisi Terbaru. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama; 2004.

Layman DK, Evans E, Baum JI, Seyler J, Erickson DJ, Boileau RA. Dietary Protein and Exercise Have Additive Efect on Body Composition during Weight lose in adults Women. J Nutr. 2005;135:1903–10.

Egger A, Kreis R, Allemann S, Stettler C, Diem P, Buehler T, Boesch C, Christ EC. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Intrahepatocellular and Intramyocellular Lipids in Healthy Subjects. PLoS One. 2013;8(8): e708.

Vissers D, Hens W, Taeymans J, Baeyens J-P, Poortmans J and Goal LV. The Effect of Exercise on Visceral Adipose Tissue in Overweight Adults : A Systematic Review and Meta Analys. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e56415.

Brian A. Irving, Christopher K. Davis, David W. Brock, Judy Y. Weltman, Damon Swift, Eugene J. Barrett, Glenn A. Gaesser and AW. Effect of Exercise Training Intensity on Abdominal Visceral Fat and Body Composition. San Diego: University of California. 2008.

Sheerwood. Fisiologi Manusia. Jakarta: EGC; 2012.

Sharkey BJ. Kebugaran & Kesehatan. Jakarta: PT Rajagrafindo Persada; 2011.

Brick L. Bugar dengan Senam Aerobik. Jakarta: PT Rajagrafindo Persada; 2001.

Campbell DT and JCS. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Design for Research. USA: Houghton Mifflin Company; 1963.

Nazir M. Metode Penelitian. Bogor: Ghalia Indonesia; 2005.

Suryabrata S. Metodelogi Penelitian. Jakarta: PT. Rajagrafindo Persada; 2006.

Pocock SJ. Clinical Trials, A Practical Approach. New York: A Willey Medical Publication; 2008.

Ross, R. Ian Jansen, Jody Dawson, Ann-Marie Kungl, Jennifer L. Kuck, Suzy L. Wong, Than-Binh Nguyen-Duy et al. Exercise-Induce Reduction in Obesity and Insulin Resisten in Women: a Randomized Controlled Trial. Obes Res.2004;12:789-798.

Lidia Santarpia*, Franco Contaldo FP. Body composition changes after weight-loss interventions for overweight and obesity. Clin Nutr J. 2013;157–61.

Jennifer B Keogh, Grant D Brinkworth, Manny Noakes, Damien P Belobrajdic, Jonathan D Buckley and PMC. Effects of weight loss from a very-low-carbohydrate diet on endothelial function and markers of cardiovascular disease risk in subjects with abdominal obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:567–76.

Grant D Brinkworth, Manny Noakes, Jonathan D Buckley, Jennifer B Keogh and PMC. Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 mo. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:23–32.

Russell J de Souza, George A Bray, Vincent J Carey, Kevin D Hall, Meryl S LeBoff, Catherine M Loria, Nancy M Laranjo, Frank M Sacks and SRS. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;1–12.

Jacinda M. Nicklas, Frank M. Sacks, Steven R. Smith, Meryl S. LeBoff, Jennifer C. Rood, George A. Bray and PMR. Effect of Dietary Composition of Weight Loss Diets on High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein: The Randomized POUNDS LOST Trial. Obes (Silver Spring). 2013;21(4:681–9.

William S. Yancy Jr., MD, MHS; Maren K. Olsen, PhD; John R. Guyton, MD; Ronna P. Bakst, RD; and Eric C. Westman, MD M. A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet versus a Low-Fat Diet To Treat Obesity and Hyperlipidemia. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140:769–77.

Iris Shai, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Yaakov Henkin, Danit R. Shahar, Shula Witkow, Ilana Greenberg et al. Weight Loss with a Low-Carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or Low-Fat Diet. Engl J Med. 2008;359:229–41.

Cahanar dan Irwan Suhanda. Makan Sehat Hidup Sehat. Jakarta: PT Kompas Media Nusantara; 2006.

Adriani, M. dan Wirjatmadi B. Peranan Gizi dalam Siklus Kehidupan. Jakarta: Kencana; 2012.

Paul Insel RET and DR. Nutrition. Canada: Jones and Bartlett Publishers,Inc; 2002.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI . Pedoman Gizi Seimbang. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI; 2015.


Full Text: PDF (Bahasa Indonesia)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 GIZI INDONESIA

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.