Rahayu Indriasari, Yessi Kurniati


Adolescent Metabolic syndrome began an alarming rate in accordance to the increased incidence of overweight in this population group. Given the continued impact of increased risks of degenerative diseases in adulthood, the treatment of metabolic syndrome during adolescence becomes very important to be considered. However, research related to adolescent metabolic syndrome is still very limited and there is no recommendation for its management. This unsystematic narrative review design aimed to find out the magnitude of the problem of adolescent metabolic syndrome and explored the potential of lifestyle changes as an intervention to address the problem. Narrative overview was conducted among research articles and literature review articles published within last ten years. This review found that interventions targeting lifestyle changes, such as dietary changes and changes in physical activity patterns, provide considerable opportunities to overcome metabolic syndrome in adolescents. The intervention components such as cognitive aspects, action planning, and duration were identified as keys to the success of the intervention. This review provides updated information with regards to appropriate lifestyle interventions for management of metabolic syndrome in adolescents.



Masalah sindroma metabolik di kalangan remaja mulai menunjukkan angka yang mengkhawatirkan seiring dengan peningkatan kejadian obesitas pada kelompok populasi ini. Mengingat dampak lanjut dari sindroma metabolik terhadap peningkatan risiko penyakit degeneratif di usia dewasa, maka penanganan sindroma metabolik di usia remaja sangat perlu dipertimbangkan. Namun, penelitian terkait sindroma metabolik pada remaja masih sangat terbatas, terlebih lagi belum ada rekomendasi khusus untuk manajemen sindroma metabolik pada remaja. Kajian pustaka ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui besar masalah sindroma metabolik pada remaja dan menelaah potensi perubahan gaya hidup sebagai upaya intervensi yang tepat dalam menangani masalah sindroma metabolik pada remaja. Kajian secara naratif dilakukan terhadap sejumlah artikel penelitian maupun artikel kajian pustaka yang terbit dalam sepuluh tahun terakhir. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa intervensi yang mentargetkan perubahan gaya hidup seperti perubahan pola makan dan perubahan pola aktifitas fisik, memberikan peluang cukup besar dalam mengatasi sindroma metabolik pada remaja. Komponen-komponen intervensi seperti aspek kognitif, perencanaan tindakan, dan durasi menjadi kunci keberhasilan intervensi. Diharapkan hasil dari kajian pustaka ini dapat memberikan informasi terkini tentang model intervensi perubahan gaya hidup sebagai upaya manajemen sindrom metabolik pada remaja.


Keywords: sindroma metabolik, remaja, gaya hidup, pola makan, aktifitas fisik


adolescent, dietary, lifestyle, metabolic syndrome, physical activity


Sargowo D, Andarini S. The relationship between food intake and adolescent metabolic syndrome. Jurnal Kardiologi Indonesia. 2011:14-23.

Kelishadi R. Childhood Overweight, Obesity, and the Metabolic Syndrome in Developing Countries. Epidemiologic Reviews. 2007;29(1):62-76.

Harrell JS, Jessup A, Greene N. Changing our future: obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 2006;21(4):322-30.

Ho M, Garnett SP, Baur LA, et al. Impact of dietary and exercise interventions on weight change and metabolic outcomes in obese children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. JAMA Pediatrics. 2013;167(8):759-68.

Ford ES, Li C, Zhao G, Pearson WS, Mokdad AH. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Among U.S. Adolescents Using the Definition From the International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(3):587-9.

Pan Y, Pratt CA. Metabolic syndrome and its association with diet and physical activity in US adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2008;108(2):276-86.

Fitzpatrick SL, Lai BS, Brancati FL, Golden SH, Hill-Briggs F. Metabolic Syndrome Risk Profiles Among African American Adolescents. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010. 2013;36(2):436-42.

MacPherson M, de Groh M, Loukine L, Prud'homme D, Dubois L. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in Canadian children and adolescents: Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycle 1 (2007-2009) and Cycle 2 (2009-2011). Chronic Diseases and Injuries in Canada. 2016;36(2).

Rizzo AC, Goldberg TB, Silva CC, Kurokawa CS, Nunes HR, Corrente JE. Metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight, obese, and extremely obese brazilian adolescents. Nutrition Journal. 2013;12(1):19.

Jääskeläinen A, Schwab U, Kolehmainen M, Pirkola J, Järvelin M-R, Laitinen J. Associations of meal frequency and breakfast with obesity and metabolic syndrome traits in adolescents of Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2013;23(10):1002-9.

González-Jiménez E, Montero-Alonso MA, Schmidt-RioValle J, García-García CJ, Padez C. Metabolic syndrome in Spanish adolescents and its association with birth weight, breastfeeding duration, maternal smoking, and maternal obesity: a cross-sectional study. European Journal of Nutrition. 2015;54(4):589-97.

Agirbasil M, Cakir S, Ozme S, Ciliv G. Metabolic syndrome in Turkish children and adolescents. Metabolism. 2006;55.

Sibarani R, Rudijanto A, Dekker J, Hiene R. The Petai China Study: Metabolic Syndrome Among Obese Indonesian Chinese Adolescents. The Indonesian Journal of Internal Medicine. 2006;38:142-4.

Mexitalia M, Utari A, Sakundarno M, Yamauchi T, Subagio HW, Soemantri A. Sindroma Metabolik pada Remaja Obesitas (The metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents). Media Medika Indonesiana. 2009;43(6):300-5.

Pacifico L, Anania C, Martino F, Poggiogalle E, Chiarelli F, Arca M, et al. Management of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2011;21(6):455-66.

Baxter AJ, Coyne T, McClintock C. Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome-a review of epidemiologic evidence. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition. 2006;15(2):134.

Joung H, Hong S, Song Y, Ahn BC, Park MJ. Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome risk factors among adolescents. Korean J Pediatr. 2012;55(4):128-35.

Weiss R, Bremer AA, Lustig RH. What is metabolic syndrome, and why are children getting it? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2013;1281(1):123-40.

Mark AE, Janssen I. Relationship between screen time and metabolic syndrome in adolescents. Journal of Public Health. 2008;30(2):153-60.

McMurray R, Bangdiwala S, Harrell J, Amorim L. Adolescents with metabolic syndrome have a history of low aerobic fitness and physical activity levels. Dynamic Medicine. 2008;7(1):5.

Tremblay M, LeBlanc A, Kho M, Saunders T, Larouche R, Colley R, et al. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2011;8(1):98.

Saneei P, Hashemipour M, Kelishadi R, Rajaei S, Esmaillzadeh A. Effects of recommendations to follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet v. usual dietary advice on childhood metabolic syndrome: a randomised cross-over clinical trial. British Journal of Nutrition. 2013;110(12):2250-9.

Lakka TA, Laaksonen DE. Physical activity in prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 2007;32(1):76-88.

Shaibi GQ, Cruz ML, Ball GD, Weigensberg MJ, Salem GJ, Crespo NC, et al. Effects of resistance training on insulin sensitivity in overweight Latino adolescent males. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2006;38(7):1208.

van Grieken A, Ezendam N, Paulis W, van der Wouden J, Raat H. Primary prevention of overweight in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of interventions aiming to decrease sedentary behaviour. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2012;9(1):61.

Chen AK, Roberts CK, Barnard RJ. Effect of a short-term diet and exercise intervention on metabolic syndrome in overweight children. Metabolism. 2006;55(7):871-8.

Caranti DA, de Mello MT, Prado WL, Tock L, Siqueira KO, de Piano A, et al. Short-and long-term beneficial effects of a multidisciplinary therapy for the control of metabolic syndrome in obese adolescents. Metabolism. 2007;56(9):1293-300.

Singhal N, Misra A, Shah P, Gulati S. Effects of controlled school-based multi-component model of nutrition and lifestyle interventions on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian Indian adolescents in North India. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64(4):364-73.

Bianchini JAA, da Silva DF, Nardo CCS, Carolino IDR, Hernandes F, Junior NN. Multidisciplinary therapy reduces risk factors for metabolic syndrome in obese adolescents. European Journal of Pediatrics. 2013;172(2):215-21.

Jago R, Mcmurray RG, Drews KL, Moe EL, Murray T, Pham TH, et al. HEALTHY intervention: fitness, physical activity, and metabolic syndrome results. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2011;43(8):1513.

Luszczynska A, Tryburcy M, Schwarzer R. Improving fruit and vegetable consumption: a self-efficacy intervention compared with a combined self-efficacy and planning intervention. Health Education Research. 2007;22(5):630-8.

Kreausukon P, Gellert P, Lippke S, Schwarzer R. Planning and self-efficacy can increase fruit and vegetable consumption: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of behavioral medicine. 2012;35(4):443-51

Full Text: PDF (Bahasa Indonesia)


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 GIZI INDONESIA

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.