POLA KONSUMSI ANAK UMUR 6 BULAN – 12 TAHUN DI INDONESIA

Edith Sumedi, Yekti Widodo, nFN Sandjaja
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Abstract

Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan anak berada dalam pengaruh dan pengasuhan orang tuanya, dan gizi merupakan salah satu faktor penting yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan, kesehatan dan perkembangan anak. Salah satu penyebab tingginya prevalensi kurang gizi di Indonesia adalah kurang baiknya pola asuh anak, pola konsumsi anak, dan ketersediaan makan keluarga. South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) di Indonesia dilaksanakan di 48 kabupaten mencakup 7211 anak 6 bulan - 12 tahun. Pola konsumsi anak menggunakan Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) melalui wawancara pola kebiasaan makan satu bulan terakhir meliputi frekuensi jenis makanan sehari, seminggu atau sebulan, cara pengolahan dan cara penyajian, merek (jika ada) berdasarkan kelompok sumber zat gizi yaitu makanan pokok, protein hewani dan nabati, sayur, buah, jajanan, minuman dan susu. Analisis data deskriptif yang menurut daerah dan dibagi menjadi 5 kelompok umur 6-11 bulan, 1-2 tahun, 3-5 tahun, 6-8 tahun dan 9-12 tahun. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pola konsumsi anak umur 6-11 bulan hampir sama di kota maupun di desa. Variasi bahan makanan lebih banyak dijumpai pada kelompok umur yang lebih tua dan terdapat perbedaan pola makan antara perkotaan dan perdesaan. Konsumsi makanan pokok tidak berbeda antara perkotaan dan perdesaan. Frekuensi makan sayur dan buah masih rendah di kedua daerah. Anak di perkotaan lebih sering mengonsumsi daging unggas, daging sapi, telur, tahu, bayam, wortel, susu/produk susu, minuman gelas/serbuk, sedangkan di perdesaan lebih sering mengonsumsi ikan laut, tempe, kangkung, jajanan ‘chiki’ dan sejenisnya. Masih diperlukan peningkatan perilaku hidup sehat dengan memperbaiki pola makan gizi seimbang.


ABSTRACT

 

FOOD PATTERN OF INDONESIAN CHILDREN 6 MONTH - 12 YEAR OF AGE

 

Child growth and development under the nurture and care of their parents, and nutrition as a factor in growth, health and development of children. Many factors associated with high prevalence of malnutrition are caring pattern of children, inadequate food consumptions and food patterns, and household food availability. The South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS) in Indonesia conducted in 48 districts collected data on food consumption pattern of 7,211 children 6 month - 12 year of age. Food consumption pattern was collected by using food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) to describe food habits based on daily, weekly, and monthly frequency of food items by interviewing mothers. Food items collected from all food groups such as foods source of carbohydrates, animal and plant proteins, vitamin and mineral source from vegetables and fruits, milk and milk products, snacks, and beverages. Descriptive analysis was used to describe food consumption pattern by residence and 5 age groups 6-11 month, 1-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12 year of age. Result showed similarity of food consumption pattern in urban and rural area in youngest age group. The variety of food items consumed by older age groups is more than those in younger ones, and as also found in urban than rural areas. There was similarity in staple food and less consumption of vegetable and fruit in urban than rural areas across age groups. The frequency of white meat, red meat, egg, tofu, spinach, carrot, dairy products, and beverages was higher in urban than rural areas. The frequency of salty fish, tempeh, swamp cabbage, “chiki’ snack was higher in rural than urban areas. Healthy living and balance diet (Gizi Seimbang) promotion of all food groups particularly vegetable and fruit should be revitalized.

 Keywords: food pattern, food frequency, Indonesian children


Keywords

pola konsumsi, frekuensi makan, anak Indonesia
Copyright (c) 2013 GIZI INDONESIA

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